Satire Writing During the Spanish Era in the History of Philippine Journalism

Well, I believe that the satirical nature and feature of different writings, journals and editorials during the Spanish Era sprung from the fact that Spanish authoritative rule had restricted the freedom of every Filipino writer at that time to express their opinions, perspectives, and views. Rather sarcastically speaking, Filipino journalism during the Spanish colonization remained static and constrained for Filipino writers would end up being punished, as if they have committed a very heinous crime, for writing contents that Spaniards think are libelous and rebellious.  And as a result, a lot of Filipinos were inclined to reading the works or materials of these authors because the works expose the maltreatment of the Spaniards through, rather enthusiastically, interesting write-ups. 
In order to fully understand the interests of Filipino writers to write during the Spanish era, it is best that we take a look back at the historical accounts of Philippine Journalism. The ultimate quest for freedom and independence started in Barcelona, Spain when La Solidaridad, a fortnightly abridged by Graciano Lopez-Jaena, financed by Dr Pablo Rianzares, and supported by the Comité de Propaganda, was published on February 15, 1889. With the policy to champion democracy and liberalism, to expose the real dilemma of the country, and to work peacefully for economic and social reforms, the newspaper published not only news, but also articles and essays about the Philippines and its people, and possibly and secretly publishing articles elaborating the abuses of Spanish friars. As editor of the newspaper, Lopez-Jaena did not receive any monetary compensation, but was given free meals, lodging, clothing, and modest pocket money. In 1891, he collected his articles and speeches and incorporated them in his book entitled Discursos y Articulos Varios.
America's Great Patriotic War With Spain: Mixed Motives, Lies, and Racism in Cuba and the Philippines, 1898-1915In writing for the newspaper, Filipino reformists used pen names: Antonio Luna, Taga-Ilog; Jose Ma. Panganiban, Jomapa; Domingo Gomez, Romero Franco; Clemente Jose Zulueta, Juan Totoó; Jose Rizal, Laong Laan and Dimas Alang; Marcelo del Pilar, Kupang, Plaridel, and Maitalaga; Mariano Ponce, Naning, Tikbalang, and Kalipulako, Eduardo Lete, Pedro Paterno, Jose Alejandrino, Isabelo delos Reyes, Antonio Ma Regidor, among others. Ferdinand Blumentritt5, a Bohemian scholar, and Miguel Morayta, a Spanish historian, also worked for the newspaper.
On October 31, 1889, Lopez-Jaena passed the editorship to Marcelo del Pilar, who left his family in the Philippines, went to Spain, and literally gave his life for the newspaper. Del Pilar became the moving spirit of the reform movement and contacted progressive Europeans who would fight side by side with Filipino reformists. Two months and three days later, that was on January 18, 1896, Ang Kalayaan, the official revolutionary newspaper of the Kataastaasang Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Highest and Most Respectable Society of the Sons of the People) founded by Andres Bonifacio6 and Emilio Jacinto, was published under the editorship of Pio Valenzuela. Printed with 2 000 copies, it exposed the inhumane and indignities of civil guards and Spanish friars and called for a bloody revolution against Spain. To deceive the Spaniards, the founders and the editor made it appeared that the newspaper was printed in Yokohoma, Japan, that the Japanese were in sympathy with the Filipino people, and that the editor was Marcelo del Pilar, who at that time was in Madrid and at the eve of his death.
The first issue of the newspaper contained a supposed editorial of Del Pilar, which Jacinto actually wrote. It greeted the people and wished them solidarity and independence and offered them his life and all he have for the good of the Filipino people. There was also an article by Jacinto and Valenzuela’s Catuiran, which described the cruelties of the Spanish friars and civil guards of San Francisco del Monte on a helpless village lieutenant. It also contained Bonifacio’s Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa that expressed the oppression of Spain and encourage the Filipino people to liberate their country; and Jacinto’s Manifesto that urged the Filipino people to revolt against Spain and to secure their liberty.
            Perhaps this is why there were quite a significant number of Filipinos during the Spanish colonization where their interests were caught because of the satirical nature of the writings of different authors. Even until today, writings and unpublished works and editorials of those authors are still highly interesting especially to those who are taking history as their academic work. Furthermore, these writings are still available for reference for those who seek enlightenment with regards to the historical accounts and influences most necessarily in the field of journalism.